When people speak, they usually make some words shorter. We can show this in writing with an apostrophe: ('). Here are some important examples.


isn't -- is not
aren't -- are not
wasn't -- was not
don't -- do not
can't -- cannot
didn't -- did not
wouldn't -- would not
hasn't -- has not
haven't -- have not

NOTICE ESPECIALLY: won't = will not
NOTICE: We say: I'm not, NOT amn't.


I'm -- I am
she's -- she is
you're -- you are
it's -- it is
he's -- he is
they're -- they are

NOTICE: We can shorten be or not but not both together. For example, we can say it's not or it isn't but NOT it'sn't.


I'll -- I will
they'll -- they will


I'd -- I would
you'd -- you would


I've -- I have
it's -- it has
I'd -- I had
they've -- they have
he's -- he has
you'd -- you had

NOTICE: 's can be is or has or GENITIVE (Unit 49)
Examples: Maria's going or Maria's gone or Maria's pen

NOTICE: 'd can be had or would
Examples: He'd gone or He'd go

NOTICE: We always use short forms in tag questions (Unit 12), but we do not use them in affirmative short answers (Unit 11), or in questions asking for yes or no or when we want to say something strongly (I am sorry = I'm very sorry).

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Exercise 6.1