Every sentence has a subject and a verb.

Subject and verb

works is not a sentence because we do not learn who or what works; there is a verb, but no subject.
John is not a sentence; there is no verb.
John works is a sentence; there is a subject (John) and a verb (works).
John, the paramedic is not a sentence; there is no verb. We do not learn how John and the paramedic go together.

Here are some sentences:

[s]:Subject, [v]:Verb

[s] John [v] is a paramedic.

[s] John [v] works with paramedics.

[s] John [v] is talking to a paramedic.

[s] The new hospital [v] is the busiest in the city.

[s] The medical clinic on 5th Avenue [v] is very old.

Word order

If a sentence tells us something (a statement), the verb goes after the subject. If a sentence asks us something (a question), one word of the verb goes before the subject.

[s]:Subject, [v]:Verb

STATEMENT [s] John [v] is feeling sick.

QUESTION [v] Is [s] John [v] feeling sick?

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Exercise 1.1